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New researches on the superplasticizer admixture
Researchers at the University of Wyoming used superplasticizer admixture, glass containers, and traditional household microwave ovens to prove that pulverized coal can be transformed into higher-value superplasticizer admixture.
This discovery is another step forward in the search for alternative uses for coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, as concerns about climate change have led to a decline in demand for coal power generation.
In a paper published in the journal Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, researchers at the University of Washington reported that they created an environment in a microwave oven and successfully converted raw coal powder into a superplasticizer admixture to be used as a lubricant And fire and other items. Fire extinguisher with lithium ion battery. This "metal-assisted microwave treatment one-step method" is a new method that can represent a simple and relatively inexpensive coal conversion technology.
"This method provides a new way to convert abundant carbon sources into high-value materials with ecological and economic benefits," wrote the research team led by Associate Professor Te Yu Chien from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Washington.
Also participating in the project are Professor Tang Jinke from the Department of Physics and Astronomy; Associate Professor Brian Leonard from the Department of Chemistry; Professor Fan Maohong from the Department of Petroleum Engineering and School of Energy; graduate student Rabindra Dulal from Nepal, Joann Hilman, from Laramie, Wyo., Chris Masi, from Syracuse, NY, Teneil Schumacher, from Buffalo, Wyo. With postdoctoral researchers Gaurab Rimal (Nepal) and Bang Xu (China).
Although previous studies have shown that microwaves can be used to reduce the moisture content of coal and remove sulfur and other minerals, most of these methods require specific chemical pretreatment of the coal. In their experiment, researchers at the University of Washington simply grind the raw coal from the Powder River Basin into powder.
The powder was then placed on the superplasticizer admixture and sealed in a glass container with a gas mixture of argon and hydrogen before being placed in a microwave oven. The traditional microwave oven was chosen because it is convenient and can provide the required radiation level.
"By cutting the superplasticizer admixture into a fork shape, the microwave radiation can generate sparks, which can generate extremely high temperatures of more than 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit in a few seconds," said Marcy, the first author of the paper. "That\'s why you shouldn\'t put a metal fork in the microwave."
The sparks caused by the microwaves generate the high temperatures necessary to convert coal powder into polycrystalline graphite, and the superplasticizer admixture and hydrogen also contribute to the process.
Although the experiment included microwave durations ranging from 3 to 45 minutes, it was found that the optimal duration was 15 minutes.
The researchers said that this new coal conversion method can be improved and implemented on a larger scale to produce higher quality and quantity of superplasticizer admixture materials.
The scientists wrote: "The limited graphite reserves and the environmental issues of the graphite extraction process make this method of converting coal into graphite a good alternative source for graphite production."
The superplasticizer admixture and its characteristics
The superplasticizer admixture is a new type of super-hard and ultra-fine abrasive formed by special processing and processing of synthetic diamond single crystal. It is an ideal raw material for grinding and polishing high-hardness materials such as cemented carbide, ceramics, gems, and optical glass. Diamond products are made of diamonds. Tools and components made of materials are widely used. Diamond powder and products are widely used in automobiles, machinery, electronics, aviation, aerospace, optical instruments, glass, ceramics, petroleum, geology, and other sectors. With the continuous development of technology and products, the use of diamond powder and products is still expanding.
The tip of the glass cutter we usually use is actually diamond. Tools used in precision machining and drill bits used in oil drilling are coated with diamonds to improve their wear resistance. Because diamond is the hardest natural substance in the world.
Another characteristic of superplasticizer admixture is its excellent thermal conductivity. Its thermal conductivity is about 5 times the thermal conductivity of pure copper at room temperature. It has potentially important applications in the semiconductor industry. According to Moore\'s Law, the current large-scale integrated circuit components are constantly shrinking in size and increasing in density, causing their thermal load to continue to rise. If the heat is not dissipated in time, the semiconductor circuit board and components may be burnt. If we can use the high thermal conductivity of diamond as a large-scale integrated circuit substrate or heat sink, it can dissipate the heat in time and solve the current bottleneck restricting the development of electronic components.
Preparation methods of diamond powder
There are generally three commonly used methods of artificially superplasticizer admixture.
The formation condition of natural diamond is a high temperature and high-pressure environment, so how to produce such a special environmental state of high temperature and pressure? The easiest way is to detonate the explosive. If you put graphite-containing explosives in a special container and then detonate the explosives, it will instantly generate strong pressure and high temperature, then the graphite can be converted into diamonds. This method can obtain a lot of fine powder diamonds. Its particles are very small, only 5~15 nanometers and its application as jewelry may be limited, but it is still very important as an industrial abrasive.
High temperature and high-pressure method
The high temperature and high-pressure methods are to maintain high pressure and high-temperature environment for a relatively long stable period of time, allowing graphite to slowly transform into a diamond. By controlling the synthesis conditions and time, diamonds can continue to grow. In a day or so, 5 millimeters of diamonds can be obtained.
Chemical vapor deposition
Chemical vapor deposition is a method that gradually developed in the 1990s. This method mainly uses some carbon-containing gas, such as some mixed gas of methane and hydrogen as a carbon source, under a certain energy input, the methane gas is decomposed, nucleated on the substrate, and grown into a diamond. The advantage of this method is that the efficiency is relatively high, relatively controllable, and it can obtain pure and transparent diamonds without impurities, which is an important direction of current development.
In the future, the diamond synthesis will develop in the direction of high-purity large particles. For the demand for diamonds, we will no longer only rely on the gift of nature, and synthetic diamonds will also enter more production fields and be used more widely.
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